If there's one Battleship (more than any other), that's responsible for defining an entire genre of Warships, than that credit of distinction, belongs only to the Royal Navy's - HMS Dreadnought (of 1906):
HMS Dreadnought was a 'World Above', the Warships that had come before her (the pre-dreadnoughts), and her design was so radical (at the time), that she gave her name, to all the Dreadnoughts that came after her (which we know by today - as Battleships). I especially like the fact, that HMS Dreadnought, helped redefine the definition/meaning of the phase: Naval Engagement ... This was achieved, through a 'Space Age Idea' - that unified her primary armament, to be of all the same calibre of guns: ten twelve-inch naval guns. This in-turn, supported the idea of Naval Engagements, from greater distances - as shell spotters, only had to look for one type of shell splash (to help correct their aiming).
Why the requirement for a greater range of naval engagement? Well ... It was believed, that such Dreadnoughts, would no longer be within the range of - enemy torpedoes! It was an idea that was regarded as radical, because Navy Engagements (up to circa 1906), had always been fought, at closer ranges (being somewhat reminiscent, of the days of Nelson's - HMS Victory).
When it comes to HMS Dreadnought's profile, there are three features, which stand out for me:
- Her high 'ram shaped' bow. This would have helped with her sea keeping (of 21 knots), and have been useful (owing to its shape), for the ramming of enemy warships, and submarines!
- The poles that extend along the side of her hull form. At first, I thought that these were a part of her armour - but they are in-fact, booms for her anti-torpedo nets (which would have been deployed, when she was in port, and/or when she was stationary).
- The layout of her primary armament gun turrets (i.e. her ten twelve-inch naval guns). Three gun turrets were located on her centre line, and could fire on either beam - at an enemy located to port or starboard (as the turrets rotated). The remaining two turrets, were located on her beams/wings (one port, one starboard) - but could only fire at an enemy, located on the relevant beam/wing (owing to limited rotation, and no line of sight/fire across her main deck). Thus do I like, the fact that HMS Dreadnought, could bring to bear: eight twelve-inch naval guns - for a full naval broadside!
Despite this, there are two design features (of HMS Dreadnought), that I did not like:
- Her complete lack 'of a true' secondary armament. Having been so revolutionary, it was almost an afterthought, to have added in twenty-seven twelve-pounder (5.44 kilogram) guns. These, were all mounted above deck, both on the roofs of her primary gun turrets, and within her topside superstructure. And as such, I find it slightly ironic/reflective, that these were the positions, which were used in later Battleship classes, for anti-aircraft arrangements. Thus did HMS Dreadnought, lack any effective close range, medium calibre guns - that could have been of use, against enemy Patrol Boats and Destroyers (who ironically, could launch torpedoes!).
- The location of her forward most, gun spotting platform (atop the tripod mast). Which could easily be 'smoked out', when she was at speed! Although to be fair, this particular design flaw, also affected - later Battleships.
HMS Dreadnought 'was the first of her kind', who sparked a Naval Arms race - as other countries, also wanted Dreadnoughts. Even so, there's one particular area, that Dreadnought often receives flak for - that her thickest belt armour (of 11 inches), was actually located beneath the waterline (when she was at sea), where it would do - little good! In any case, HMS Dreadnought was a 'step in the right direction', as many of her novel features, made it successfully into - later Battleship classes :)
HMS Dreadnought's Battleship Data:
Armament: Ten 12 inch naval guns (5 x 2), twenty-seven 12 pounder guns (27 x 1) and five 18 inch torpedo tubes.
Armour: belt (4 to 11 inches), turrets and barbettes (up to 11 inches), decks (0.75 to 4 inches), bulkheads (up to 8 inches).
Displacement: 21900 tons (when fully loaded).
Dimensions: Length: 527 feet (160.6 metres). Beam/Width: 82 feet (25 metres). Draught/Height: 26.5 feet (8.1 metres).
Shaft Horse Power: 24000. Top Speed: 21 knots.
Ship's Crew: 773. Country: United Kingdom.
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