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Nebula Hawk has currently reviewed the following:

US 5 Inch 38 Calibre - Dual Purpose Naval Gun

The American 'twin barrel' 5 inch naval gun is regarded as 'one of the most successful naval guns' of all time:

American 5 Inch 38 Calibre Naval Gun - twin barrel and dual purpose (mounted on battleships).
American 5 Inch 38 Calibre Naval Gun - twin barrel and dual purpose (mounted on battleships).

Part of its success, comes from the fact that the US Navy standardised the 5 inch gun, for use on both battleships and smaller warships (such as cruisers and destroyers). This made shell logistics 'so much simpler'. On a battleship, the twin 5 inch was only ever a secondary armament (for use against aircraft and surface targets). Whilst on cruisers and destroyers, the 5 inch 'was usually' the primary armament - with up to eight turrets being installed (for example) on the 'light cruiser' USS Atlanta (which featured six centreline turrets 'for stability reasons' and two wing turrets 'for maximising' anti-aircraft firepower). The 5 inch gun was heavily used throughout World War Two, to defend the American warship fleets 'in the Pacific'. When used to defend against enemy aircraft, several turrets would operate together, using barrage fire (the idea being: not to target the enemy aircraft directly, but rather 'target the area' that the enemy aircraft was in) and destroy the aircraft with shrapnel 'exploding outwards' from the 5 inch shells (which were equipped with proximity fuses). As an anti-aircraft gun, the twin 5 inch 'more than proved its worth', and it was a gun turret that would not be easily mothballed - even after World War Two had finished (in 1945) ... When the Iowa class battleships were reactivated (in the 1980s'), the venerable twin 5 inch dual purpose gun, was retained as part of their armament - although with only six turrets (as opposed to ten turrets) to make room for newer 'more modern' missiles.

| Nebula Hawk

Flagship Hood - Beyond the Depths

There has always been 'much mystery' surrounding HMS Hood: Was she a battlecruiser or a battleship? What colours were her turret markings - and what did they mean? What was the 'cluttered equipment' on her decks used for?

Flagship Hood - Beyond the Depths
Flagship Hood - Beyond the Depths

This book discusses those questions (amongst others) whilst 'aiming to remember' HMS Hood - with regard to: her technology, crew and missions. HMS Hood appears primarily in her 1937 configuration (author's 3D polygon models), together with her 1941 'final guise' and author's 'concept version'. The lineage of HMS Hood is also considered, from the days of HMS Victory, through HMS Warrior - together with Hood's 'family name'. Whilst ending with a conclusion, that is perhaps 'just a little strange' ...

| Nebula Hawk | Web: Available through Amazon US UK CA and all other 'Amazon Countries' :)

HMS Hood 1937 - Stern Deck

Here we can see the stern deck area of HMS Hood. What I most liked about Hood's stern profile, was the fact that she had a matched pair of naval gun turrets, mounted astern:

HMS Hood 1937 - Stern Deck
HMS Hood 1937 - Stern Deck

Later battleships (including both American, and Japanese), would only have a single gun turret, mounted astern. I feel that the matched pair (in Hood), catered for a more balanced profile - both in terms of her appearance, and in terms of her firepower. Hood's stern deck, was an interesting area of contradiction! For on her Empire Cruise (when she sailed the British Empire), was this area often where the VIPs (such as Royalty) were entertained. With the wooden handrail ladders (middle-bottom right), leading to the Admiral's Day Cabin - came much pomp and ceremony. And yet, when Hood was at sea, even in a fairly calm sea, was this entire stern deck area, often awash with sea water! The stern deck had been designed too low in the waterline. Yet, there is some irony here. For in the wreck of HMS Hood (at the bottom of the North Atlantic), is it the stern deck and it's flag pole, that stand up from the sea bed, as if in salute.

| Nebula Hawk | Web: HMS Hood Wreck - Stern Deck

HMS Hood 1937 - Stern View

The stern view of HMS Hood. From here, you can see her four Manganese Bronze Propellers, which were responsible for powering her through, the World's Oceans:

HMS Hood 1937 - Stern View
HMS Hood 1937 - Stern View

You can also see, her anti-torpedo bulges (the outermost red hull form parts), which were designed to detonate an enemy torpedo, away from her vital innards (such as her boiler rooms, and her engines). This view, also best highlights a design flaw, which although it may not have affected her combat effectiveness too much, certainly affected her day to day operations: her stern deck was designed too low, and as such, was often awash - with sea water!

| Nebula Hawk

HMS Hood 1937 - Midships

Here we can see the midships area of HMS Hood:

HMS Hood 1937 - Midships
HMS Hood 1937 - Midships

The hull form in this area, was protected by the thickest belt armour - of up to 12 inches. The idea was a simple one: important machinery (such as the boilers and engines), were enclosed in the thickest belt armour, so that warships like Hood, could take punishment under fire, and still maintain a manoeuvrable gun platform (aka the ability to fire their primary naval guns). Unfortunately, Hood's machinery spaces were considerably long (about 391 feet, 45.5 percent of her length), and she had been designed in a time, when plunging shell fire (which would penetrate the deck), had not really been considered. Hence, the midships deck armour was way too thin, and what armour there was (of up to 3 inches thick), was spread over too small an area! Such short comings, were not known to her sailors - who believed her to be the greatest warship in the Navy, and she was :) This view also best showcases Hood's secondary armament - her twelve 5.5 inch naval guns. These were designed to engage surface targets only, such as destroyers - which could have easily launched torpedoes at her. These guns, would also have supported the primary 15 inch naval guns (when in range).

| Nebula Hawk

HMS Hood 1937 - Bow View

The bow view of HMS Hood. From here, you can make out the shear of her hull form:

HMS Hood 1937 - Bow View
HMS Hood 1937 - Bow View

Which both helped her sea-keeping, and reduced the chances, of an enemy shell penetrating her belt armour (by striking it an angle, as opposed to square on). You can also see, that Hood could bring to bear, just two forward naval gun turrets (aka four 15 inch shells) when approaching end on - as she did, on that fateful day (at the battle of the Denmark Strait), when she was lost, battling the Bismarck. This view also shows, another important fact about HMS Hood, from the shear number of windows and view slits, that are visible from this angle: how important visually sighting the enemy was, in a time before radar.

| Nebula Hawk

HMS Hood 1937 - Forecastle Deck

Here we can see the bow of HMS Hood, which was - long and fine:

HMS Hood 1937 - Forecastle Deck
HMS Hood 1937 - Forecastle Deck

This was for one simple reason - speed. Without a bow that was long, fine and sheared, Hood could not have attained her top speed of 32 knots. Only the hull form in the vicinity of A turret aft, would have been armoured - with the bow being soft. In retrospect, this arrangement was not adequate. Specifically, the deck area around the base of the two gun turrets and barbettes, was regarded as too thinly armoured, and was not thick enough to guard against plunging shellfire (although plans had been made, to thicken the armour in this area). Another point of interest, are Hood's breakwater arrangements - which were designed to protect the forecastle deck, from bow spray (as was encountered, when she pitched into heavy seas).

| Nebula Hawk

HMS Hood 1937 - Main Mast and Little Boats

HMS Hood was an Empire Ship that sailed the world. As such, her upper decks were an interesting mix, of both peacetime and wartime:

HMS Hood 1937 - Main Mast and Little Boats
HMS Hood 1937 - Main Mast and Little Boats

For me, the peacetime is represented by the variety of smaller boats that she carried on-board. I believe that these were used when she was in port, or when she had anchored off some tropical island, for some rest and relaxation (for her sailors). Yet, she was still a warship, with the armament to match! Here we can see: a 5.5 inch naval gun (lower left), a 4 inch high angle anti-aircraft gun (middle-bottom), and a quadruple 0.5 inch anti-aircraft gun (middle-bottom right). Now, I've heard it said, that sailors don't have a fear of heights! Hood's main mast, would appear to test this theory - with the mast's ladders being used to gain access, to both lookout posts, and wireless radio equipment. The long horizontal boom, that stems from the base of the main mast, is the main derrick, which was 65 feet long! I believe this was used, to lift both the smaller boats, and other heavy equipment (such as ammunition crates).

| Nebula Hawk

HMS Hood 1937 - Spotting Top

The highest observation point located on-board HMS Hood, was her spotting top:

HMS Hood 1937 - Spotting Top
HMS Hood 1937 - Spotting Top

It is here, that her look outs would have scowled the seas, looking for the tell tale glimpse, of an enemy vessel (in a time before radar). The tripod mast on the back, is where Hood's wireless rig was attached (the six horizontal lines coming in from the top left). Both structures, were supported by a single starfish - the black metallic structure, that's located underneath. One of HMS Hood's three survivors (from when she was sunk), was actually stationed in the spotting top - surviving because he was washed through a window, as everything else around him sunk!

| Nebula Hawk

battleship - All

Battleship Artwork - Warship Artwork - Digital Commission, Battleships - Battleship Board Game, Battleships - Battleship Card Game, Battleships - The Ultimate Guide to the Worlds Greatest Battleships, Conways Battleships, Flagship Hood - Beyond the Depths, HMS Agincourt, HMS Dreadnought, HMS Hood 1937 - Air Defence Platform, HMS Hood 1937 - Anchors and Anchor Chains, HMS Hood 1937 - Bow View, HMS Hood 1937 - Forecastle Deck, HMS Hood 1937 - Front Conning Tower, HMS Hood 1937 - Front Conning Tower - Lower Levels, HMS Hood 1937 - Main Mast and Little Boats, HMS Hood 1937 - Midships, HMS Hood 1937 - Midships Detail, HMS Hood 1937 - Minesweeper and Winches, HMS Hood 1937 - Naval Gun Turrets A and B, HMS Hood 1937 - Spotting Top, HMS Hood 1937 - Stern Armament and Day Cabin, HMS Hood 1937 - Stern Deck, HMS Hood 1937 - Stern View, HMS Queen Elizabeth, Hood and Bismarck - Channel 4 Documentary - Part One, Hood and Bismarck - Channel 4 Documentary - Part Two, Indianapolis and Hood - Great Blunders of World War Two, Janes Battleships of the 20th Century, The Mighty Hood - Ernle Bradford, Torpedo Run - Battleship Board Game, US 5 Inch 38 Calibre - Dual Purpose Naval Gun